Lamictal (Lamotrigine) Lowers Serotonin and Glutamate, Heightens Sexual Satisfaction, Blocks the Stress Response and Improves ADHD Symptoms

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Bourdon Nouvelles tables 1678 05a
Amé Bourdon (del.), Daniel Le Bossu (sculps.) / Scan by NLM, Bourdon Nouvelles tables 1678 05a, marked as public domain, more details on Wikimedia Commons

 

“Alteration of monoamine levels by some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) was elucidated in this study. Lamotrigine (LTG) is a new AED, acting the sodium-channels. LTG was given as add-on therapy to 16 patients aged 4.5-18 yrs with intractable epilepsy and comedicated with carbamazepine or valproate. An equal group of epileptics with comparable clinical characteristics and treatment served as control. Plasma and urinary (24 h-samples) serotonin and 5-HIAA were determined before onset of LTG therapy and after 2-3 months. HPLC and electrochemical detection was used for the determination of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). No significant effect of LTG on both urinary 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels was found, whereas plasma 5-HT concentrations significantly decreased in comparison with levels before LTG starting and relevant values in controls. This findings was noted in 7/16 children with favourable response to LTG. Increased serotonin catabolism may be result of LTG action.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10721069

Modulation of neuroendocrine response and non-verbal behavior during psychosocial stress in healthy volunteers by the glutamate release-inhibiting drug lamotrigine.

“The present work was aimed at verifying the following hypotheses: (a) lamotrigine, a drug used to treat mood disorders, affects regulation of stress hormone release in humans, and (b) non-verbal behavior during mental stress situations (public speech) is related to hormonal responses. To achieve these aims, we performed a controlled, double-blind study investigating hormonal responses and non-verbal behavior during public speech in healthy subjects with placebo or lamotrigine (300 mg per os) pretreatment. The stress procedure was performed in 19 young healthy males 5 h following drug or placebo administration. Data were obtained from cardiovascular monitoring, blood and saliva samples, as well as the video-recorded speech. Pre-stress hormone levels were not affected by lamotrigine treatment. Lamotrigine significantly inhibited diastolic blood pressure, growth hormone and cortisol increases during psychosocial stress. In contrast, it potentiated plasma renin activity and aldosterone responses. Non-verbal behavior analysis revealed a correlation between catecholamines and submissive or flight behavior in controls, while between catecholamines and displacement behavior following lamotrigine administration. In conclusion, effects of lamotrigine on hormone release might be of value for its mood-stabilizing action used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. The data are in support of a stimulatory role of glutamate in the control of cortisol and growth hormone release during psychosocial stress in humans; however, further studies using more selective drugs are needed to prove this suggestion. The effects on plasma renin activity and aldosterone release observed seem to be related to other actions of lamotrigine.” Summary: Glutamate (implicated in most manifestations of mental illness) increases growth hormone and cortisol. Lamotrigine lowers glutamate but increases renin and aldosterone. Cyproheptadine lowers aldosterone, and sodium will as well: https://raypeatforum.com/community/threads/cyproheptadine-lowers-cortisol-endorphins-hgh-aldosterone.6376/ Sodium also lowers renin: “A low salt diet is just one of the things that can reduce kidney circulation and stimulate renin production. Bacterial endotoxin, and other things that cause excessive capillary permeability, edema, or shock-like symptoms, will activate renin secretion.” in http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/salt.shtml Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14755132

“Alteration of monoamine levels by some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) was elucidated in this study. Lamotrigine (LTG) is a new AED, acting the sodium-channels. LTG was given as add-on therapy to 16 patients aged 4.5-18 yrs with intractable epilepsy and comedicated with carbamazepine or valproate. An equal group of epileptics with comparable clinical characteristics and treatment served as control. Plasma and urinary (24 h-samples) serotonin and 5-HIAA were determined before onset of LTG therapy and after 2-3 months. HPLC and electrochemical detection was used for the determination of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). No significant effect of LTG on both urinary 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels was found, whereas plasma 5-HT concentrations significantly decreased in comparison with levels before LTG starting and relevant values in controls. This findings was noted in 7/16 children with favourable response to LTG. Increased serotonin catabolism may be result of LTG action.

I’ve spoken quite a bit about the connection between cortisol and hypersexuality, and I posted a study a while ago about lamotrigine lowering cortisol. It also tends to reduce heightened desire and feelings of sexual pleasure (which can occur with anti-convulsants, possibly increasing the threshold for the “convulsion” of orgasm.) THC, another drug that can trigger remission of symptoms from seizures, can also increase orgasm intensity.
 
Objective
To assess the course of sexual function in epilepsy patients treated with lamotrigine.
Material and methods
This open study included 141 patients treated with lamotrigine for a period of 8 months: 79 patients initiated treatment with lamotrigine monotherapy, and 62 were switched to lamotrigine because of lack of efficacy or adverse events to a previous antiepileptic drug (AED). Patients were assessed at baseline and after 4 and 8 months of treatment. In the baseline and final visits the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ) was applied. Analysis was performed in an intent-to-treat population.
Results
In women who started treatment with lamotrigine, a significant improvement was observed, both in total CSFQ score (increase of 5.39 ± 6.95 points; p < 0.05), and in the five dimensions of the scale (desire/frequency, desire/interest, pleasure, arousal/excitement and orgasm). In men, a significant improvement was only observed in the pleasure dimension. In the group of patients in whom a previous AED was substituted by lamotrigine, significant improvement was recorded in the dimensions of pleasure and orgasm in men and desire/frequency in women, whilst in women the desire/interest dimension showed a decrease.
Conclusions
In this observational study, an improvement in sexual dysfunction was observed in association with lamotrigine. This could have been the result of improvement of the epilepsy, changes in quality of life, elimination of side effects from other AEDs, or a mood-stabilizing effect of lamotrigine.
SOURCE: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1059131105002293

The drug lamotrigine lowers glutamate in the brain and can treat seizures, bipolar depression, OCD and certain personality disorders including BPD. This study underscores the role of excess glutamate in a wide range of neurological disorders including ADHD:
The mean ADHD test score of the 90 subjects was 17.0±1.8 at baseline. It was slightly reduced to 15.6±1.7 after lamotrigine monotherapy (P >0.01). Prior to treatment, a total of 31 patients (34.4%) met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, Of these 31 patients, 27 (87.1%) had significantly improved ADHD scores with lamotrigine monotherapy (28.0±1.6 reduced to 18.1±2.6, P<0.001). Among these 27 patients, 25 (92.6%) showed normalized electroencephalogram (EEG) and 26 (96.3%) achieved total freedom from seizures within 12 months of the initiation of lamotrigine monotherapy.”

Modulation of neuroendocrine response and non-verbal behavior during psychosocial stress in healthy volunteers by the glutamate release-inhibiting drug lamotrigine.

“The present work was aimed at verifying the following hypotheses: (a) lamotrigine, a drug used to treat mood disorders, affects regulation of stress hormone release in humans, and (b) non-verbal behavior during mental stress situations (public speech) is related to hormonal responses. To achieve these aims, we performed a controlled, double-blind study investigating hormonal responses and non-verbal behavior during public speech in healthy subjects with placebo or lamotrigine (300 mg per os) pretreatment. The stress procedure was performed in 19 young healthy males 5 h following drug or placebo administration. Data were obtained from cardiovascular monitoring, blood and saliva samples, as well as the video-recorded speech. Pre-stress hormone levels were not affected by lamotrigine treatment. Lamotrigine significantly inhibited diastolic blood pressure, growth hormone and cortisol increases during psychosocial stress. In contrast, it potentiated plasma renin activity and aldosterone responses. Non-verbal behavior analysis revealed a correlation between catecholamines and submissive or flight behavior in controls, while between catecholamines and displacement behavior following lamotrigine administration. In conclusion, effects of lamotrigine on hormone release might be of value for its mood-stabilizing action used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. The data are in support of a stimulatory role of glutamate in the control of cortisol and growth hormone release during psychosocial stress in humans; however, further studies using more selective drugs are needed to prove this suggestion. The effects on plasma renin activity and aldosterone release observed seem to be related to other actions of lamotrigine.”
 
Summary: Glutamate (implicated in most manifestations of mental illness) increases growth hormone and cortisol. Lamotrigine lowers glutamate but increases renin and aldosterone. Cyproheptadine lowers aldosterone, and sodium will as well: https://raypeatforum.com/community/threads/cyproheptadine-lowers-cortisol-endorphins-hgh-aldosterone.6376/
 
Sodium also lowers renin: “A low salt diet is just one of the things that can reduce kidney circulation and stimulate renin production. Bacterial endotoxin, and other things that cause excessive capillary permeability, edema, or shock-like symptoms, will activate renin secretion.” in http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/salt.shtml
 
SOURCE: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14755132
 

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